Throw light on the protection and compilation of the Holy Quran.
Allah Almighty has himself taken the responsibility of the protection of the Holy Quran. As Allah has said
Lo! We even We, reveal the Reminder,
Lo! We verily are its Guardian." (Al-Hijr:.9)
Allah sent the Holy book, and He is its Guardian. The Holy Quran was revealed by Allah who is Powerful and Omnipresent. The Quran is a book of Guidance. It was revealed for the guidance and counselling of people. Allah Almighty has himself taken the responsibilities of this book. Since its revelation no change has taken place in it. Like the other revealed books of other religions, there has been no cutting and clipping. The Holy Quran is preserved forever. It is in its original position. Nobody has the right (the will) and the courage to do it. The Holy Quran guides man in accordance the needs of the world. Allah has said in the Holy Quran,
"And when we read it, follow thou the reading." (Al-Qiyama:18)
"Then Lo! upon us (resteth) the explanation therefore." (Al-Qiyama:19).
When any Surah of the Quran was revealed to the Holy Prophet it was preserved in his heart. In this way by the blessing of Allah the Holy Quran was preserved and the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) learnt it automatically. Many of the companions of the Holy Prophet had memorized the Holy Quran. They were Hafiz of Quran (preservers of Quran). Besides the Holy Quran was written on stony slabs, on the leaves of palm tree. One can say that the Holy Quran was arranged and compiled through different means.
Collection and compilation of the Holy Quran
- Period of the Holy Prophet
- Period of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique
- Period of Hazrat Usman
The scheme and arrangement of the Holy Quran is it was made in the time of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) Whenever any Surah was revealed to the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) he used to tell it to the writers of revelations. He ordered the placement of the Surah. The collection and compilation of the Holy Quran was made under the direction of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) The revelation of the of the Holy Quran began in the early part of life of the Holy Prophet The revelation of the Holy Quran continued for at least twenty-three years. There was no fixed time of revelation. So, it was very important to preserve every verse. The moment a Surah was revealed, it was noted down at once in black and white). It has been reported that on the fourth day of the revelation its writing began. Hazrat Khalid Bin Walid enjoys the position of the first writer of the revelation. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) arranged a special system of preserving the revelation in written from. At least forty-two companions of the Holy Prophet were assigned this duty. This was arranged so that there should be no delay and hindrance in the writing of revelation.
It has been reported that whatever the written part of the Holy Quran was there, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) used to recite it in a loud voice. Those companions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) who can read and write, brought their own copy of the Holy Quran They compared the recitation of the Holy Quran by the Holy Prophet in nag with their own copy. This was with a view to avoid any mistake or confusion. This was also to see that the arrangement of the Surahs was in proper order. It is reported by Imam Bukhari that a few months before his death during the month of Ramzan, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) recited the full Holy Quran for two times. He told the people that his death time has come near. He has been asked by Hazrat Gabriel (A.S) to recite the Holy Quran twice so that there should be the no mistake. In this way the Holy Quran reached us in a safe and dependable position.
- Age of Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A)
After the death of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) no one paid attention to the compilation of the Holy Quran. But an incident took place which resulted in he immediate compilation of the Holy Quran. Muslims made a proclamation of false prophet hood Battle of Yamama took place against this false prophet and seven hundred Hafiz of the Holy Quran embraced Shahadat (were killed). At that time, the Holy Quran was preserved in human hearts. This was a matter of great anxiety for the companions of the Holy Prophet Hazrat Omer (R.A) suggested Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiquel to bring in writing the whole Quran. In the beginning Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiquel hesitated, but later on he was convinced and said to Hazrat Zeyd - Bin-Sabitlu, "You are young and wise. You are innocent and free of any acquisition you also wrote down revelation in the time of the Holy Prophet Therefore, keep yourself busy in compiling the Quran in one place." Hazrat Zeydi (R.A) said, "This was huge task and proved beyond my power." Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (R.A) made public proclamation that anybody who had any part of the written Quran, he should bring it before which was headed by Hazrat Zeyd-Bin-Sabitle). In this way compilation of the Quran was made in the age of Hazrat Abu-Bakr (R.A).
- Age of Hazrat Usman (at)
The services and role of Hazrat Usman (R.A) are praiseworthy as he got the consensus of the Muslim Ummah on one Quran. He saved the people from the existing conflicts and from any future confusion. This is the greatest achievement of his age otherwise there was a great danger of conflict about. The recitation of the Holy Quran between Arab tribes and non-Arab tribes. Hazrat Usman (R.A) got the seven copies of the Holy Quran copied in the style of the Holy Prophet (R.A) with the passage of time it so happened that there were different ups and downs. The Muslims gathered at one platform and the Ummah showed his consensus on the Quran.
- The vowel or diacritical points/pronunciation
Upto the age of Hazrat Usman (R.A) use of vowel was not in practice because Arabic was their native language. Gradually as Islam spread among other nations its necessity was seriously felt. Hajaj bin Yousaf made the use of vowels which simplified the recitation, understanding and the meaning of the Holy Quran. Though Hajaj was known for his cruelty, this is his achievement. The final touch to the use of vowel and punctuation was given by Khalil bin Ahmad. In this way the Holy Quran which was revealed on the Holy Prophet was preserved from any kind of change or amendment.
- Modern Euro in Research
In 1933, in Munich University (Germany) a Quran research institution was established. They collected forty thousand photocopies of the Holy Quran. After comparison, report was issued, and it was told that there may be somewhere any mistake in the writing but the language of the Quran is the same. No doubt, Allah himself is the custodian of the Holy Quran and its message.