Narrate causes of Martial Law 1958

Difficulty: Hard

   Ayub Khan Era 1958-1969:

         Martial Law 1958:

 General Muhammad Ayub Khan deposed Iskander Mirza in October 1958. He imposed Martial Law and justified his actions on some grounds. Some important causes of this Martial Law are given below:

  1. Political Conflict:

After the establishment of Pakistan, conflict of power gave birth to grouping in the Muslim League. Governor-General Ghulam Muhammad took advantage of this conflict and dissolved Assembly twice. Thus, political conflict paved the way for the first Martial Law in the country.

  1. Poor Economic Conditions:

Political instability and poor economic situation were prevailing in the country. Despite being an agricultural country, the country experienced a food shortage. The economic situation was so poor that in some areas famine-like situations arose.

  1. Lack of Political Leadership:

Pakistan lost capable political leadership after the deaths of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) Liaquat Ali khan and Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy and such people got control of the country and could neither build national unity among people nor solve the problems of the people.

  1. Smuggling and Nepotism:

Some other causes of Martial Law included smuggling, black marketing, nepotism, and obtainment of undue privileges. No one was mere to solve the problems of the people. The middle class was living a miserable life. The system of the entire country was plunged into chaos.

  1. Role of Bureaucracy:

Bureaucracy manifested the most irresponsible attitude and played its role In failing democracy in the country. Being influential, lust for power was born in their hearts which caused the imposition of Martial Law.

  1. Ayub’s Khan Politics:

Politicians were involved inputting legs of each other. So, there was political instability in the country. In these circumstances, Governor-General Ghulam Muhammad included General Ayub Khan as Defence Minister in the cabinet. It created uncertainty.

  1. Provincial Prejudices:

Thriving provincial prejudices also resulted in the imposition of Martial Law. Politicians, without caring for national security, instigated the public sentiments/

  1. Political Instability:

Six cabinets were formed by two Governor-General from 1953 to 1958. Political instability and failure of the parliamentary system resulted in a political crisis. The people developed hatred towards politicians. They lost their trust in the democratic process that brought Martial Law.

  1. Delay in Elections:

No General Elections were held in first eleven years of Pakistan. Elections were held only in the provinces one by one. After the Constitution of 1956 was passed, it was hoped that General Elections would be held within one year but it could not be done.